The second half of Ko-Dang covers other common tackle defenses: step back and front kick, the guillotine choke, a sideways sprawl, and a sacrifice throw.
|Front kick versus a tackle. |
At this point the form "resets" and we defend from a distance tackle again. Step back with your front leg and kick with your back (now front) leg. The step back is just to gain distance, but in a closer range you might be a knee strike instead. After the kick, land forward and execute a double inward strike to the opponent's neck.
|Source: Andrew Lock|
But of course, they're going to keep charging, so we execute knifehand rising block to their throat -- lifting their head upwards (we can use the outer hand of the chamber to first push their head to the side) -- and side step to the right while pushing them out to the left and downward (side step into low guarding block). From here, grab their head and execute downward punch with your back hand, either punching the back of their head or pushing their body to the ground.
|Source: Fight Authority|
From here, slide backwards while lifting your arms back (guarding block chamber) to choke out your opponent. Some grappling arts will tell you to fall down on your back to choke, but we want to stay on our feet if we can so we slide backwards instead.
|Source: Expert Village|
From here, we should naturally turn as our opponent keeps advancing. As we turn 180-degrees (like in the form), we use our free arm to press the opponent's head to the ground (outer-forearm block). The combined two gifs below convey the basic idea of the technique. It's essentially just side-stepping your opponent's tackle, turning 180-degrees, and then pressing them to the ground.
|Source: FightTips (with Firas Zahabi) and Nick Drossos|
|Leaning weight with overhook and x-stance. Source: FightTips|
We're nearing the end of the form and there's only one class of tackle defenses left: sacrifice throws (fnt. 1). The following throw is sort of like Judo's tomoe nage (circle throw), but the opponent is thrown at an angle. The two examples below show the throw from a single leg position.
|Source: Jared Jessup|
1) The upset punch with the front hand coming in used as both an overhook (back hand) and a grab which pulls in our opponent (front hand).
2) The hooking kick (fnt. 2) is used to first hook the opponent's leg(s) and then kick it/them up as you sink your butt and roll. It's aimed at 90-degrees because that's how you turn when you fall and roll.
3) The outward cross-cut we use as a follow-up strike after the opponent is on the ground
|"Ground cross-cut" from the Encyclopedia|
Why do a sacrifice throw at an angle, rather than going straight back like in tomoe nage? The most obvious reason is that it lets you roll on your shoulder, not the back of your head. But you also end up in a good side mount position, from which you can quickly strike and then disengage from your opponent.
Finally, we reiterate the last two moves of Hwa-Rang: two knifehand guarding blocks. Use your forearm to guard against the opponent's tackle. This is the preferred tackle defense of self-defense instructor Nick Drossos. If your opponent grabs your front leg anyway, grab their head with both palms (chamber for second guarding block), and crank it away from your leg (turn 180-degrees into second guarding block). Remember that for knifehand guarding block, your arms move in parallel, so if you bring your palms closer together it's like you are holding someone's head (we also used knifehand guarding block as a neck crank earlier for the jumping neck break).
|Source: Code Red Defense|
That concludes Ko-Dang. My intent with these two posts was to show that the form -- rather than being a random collection of movements -- is actually a collection of thematically related defenses. It's a nicely packed little form; it's a shame it was removed from the ITF set for political reasons (fnt. 3), but many schools still practice it. I haven't learned Juche yet, but from what I've seen it doesn't appear to be about tackle defense. As I stated previously, the ITF forms are meant to comprise a single fighting system, meaning that it makes sense that the higher forms would each be dedicated to a certain self-defense situation.
The "pattern" is thus a set sequence of movement of attack and defence in a logical order. Imaginary opponents are dealt with in sequence logically and systematically under the assumption of various situations. ~ General Choi, Taekwon-Do, The Art of Self Defense
A student’s sparring or fighting style becomes his adaptation of the principles he has acquired from hyungs [forms]. The hyungs, then, are the student’s line between Tae Kwon Do training and actual fighting ~ Jhoon-Rhee, Tan-Gun and To-San
The punch-block-kick applications do not reveal what these principles or logical ordering are, but the deeper applications do.
1) Well, there are also "reversals": where you counter a single leg with your own single leg takedown. However, these are techniques you would do in a competitive situation rather than self-defense.
2) To anyone who's never practiced Ko-Dang: a "hooking kick" is not the same as a "hook kick". It looks more like an outside crescent kick, but it's called a "hooking kick" because the shape you make with your foot is meant to hook something.
3) Ko-Dang, the pseudonym of Cho Man Sik, was a political opponent of the Kim dynasty in North Korea, for which he was eventually executed. He is considered a patriot in South Korea. When Gen. Choi sought funding from the North Korean government, he of course couldn't have a form named after Cho Man Sik, so all of a sudden he had a revelation that Ko-Dang was an inferior form and replaced it with a new form, Juche, named after the North Korean philosophy of self-reliance. Needless to say, this was an unpopular move; several of Choi's commanders left the ITF organization. Chang Keun Choi -- who helped create the form Gae-Baek -- claimed that Gen. Choi was now teaching a completely different style of taekwondo. The South Korean press branded Choi as a traitor, and the Kukkiwon excludes him from their version of Taekwondo history. Choi himself was born in North Korea, and was likely hoping that introducing taekwondo to the north would help unite the two Koreas.
The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do Vol. 3